December 3, 2008


Spain (ES)

Population: 40,491,052

Spain's powerful world empire of the 16th and 17th centuries ultimately yielded command of the seas to England. Subsequent failure to embrace the mercantile and industrial revolutions caused the country to fall behind Britain, France, and Germany in economic and political power. Spain remained neutral in World Wars I and II but suffered through a devastating civil war (1936-39). A peaceful transition to democracy following the death of dictator Francisco FRANCO in 1975, and rapid economic modernization (Spain joined the EU in 1986) have given Spain one of the most dynamic economies in Europe and made it a global champion of freedom. Continuing challenges include Basque Fatherland and Liberty (ETA) terrorism, illegal immigration, and slowing economic growth.
Strategic location along approaches to Strait of Gibraltar.

Location: Southwestern Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay, Mediterranean Sea, North Atlantic Ocean, and Pyrenees Mountains, southwest of France

Geographic coordinates:40 00 N, 4 00 WArea:total: 504,782 sq kmland: 499,542 sq kmwater: 5,240 sq kmnote: there are two autonomous cities - Ceuta and Melilla - and 17 autonomous communities including Balearic Islands and Canary Islands, and three small Spanish possessions off the coast of Morocco - Islas Chafarinas, Penon de Alhucemas, and Penon de Velez de la Gomera

Size comparison: slightly more than twice the size of Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 1,917.8 km
border countries: Andorra 63.7 km, France 623 km, Gibraltar 1.2 km, Portugal 1,214 km, Morocco (Ceuta) 6.3 km, Morocco (Melilla) 9.6 km
Coastline: 4,964 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (applies only to the Atlantic Ocean)
Climate: temperate; clear, hot summers in interior, more moderate and cloudy along coast; cloudy, cold winters in interior, partly cloudy and cool along coast
Terrain: large, flat to dissected plateau surrounded by rugged hills; Pyrenees in north
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Pico de Teide (Tenerife) on Canary Islands 3,718 m
Natural resources: coal, lignite, iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, uranium, tungsten, mercury, pyrites, magnesite, fluorspar, gypsum, sepiolite, kaolin, potash, hydropower, arable land
Land use: arable land: 27.18%
permanent crops: 9.85%
other: 62.97% (2005)
Irrigated land: 37,800 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts
Current Environment Issues: pollution of the Mediterranean Sea from raw sewage and effluents from the offshore production of oil and gas; water quality and quantity nationwide; air pollution; deforestation; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants

Population:40,491,052 (July 2008 est.)Age structure:0-14 years: 14.4% (male 3,011,815/female 2,832,788)15-64 years: 67.6% (male 13,741,493/female 13,641,914)65 years and over: 17.9% (male 3,031,597/female 4,231,444) (2008 est.)Median age:total: 40.7 yearsmale: 39.3 yearsfemale: 42.1 years (2008 est.)Population growth rate:0.096% (2008 est.)Birth rate:9.87 births/1,000 population (2008 est.)Death rate:9.9 deaths/1,000 population (2008 est.)Net migration rate:0.99 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2008 est.)Sex ratio:at birth: 1.07 male(s)/femaleunder 15 years: 1.06 male(s)/female15-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/femaletotal population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2008 est.)Infant mortality rate:total: 4.26 deaths/1,000 live birthsmale: 4.65 deaths/1,000 live birthsfemale: 3.85 deaths/1,000 live births (2008 est.)Life expectancy at birth:total population: 79.92 yearsmale: 76.6 yearsfemale: 83.45 years (2008 est.)Total fertility rate:1.3 children born/woman (2008 est.)HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate:0.7% (2001 est.)HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS:140,000 (2001 est.)HIV/AIDS - deaths:fewer than 1,000 (2003 est.)Nationality:noun: Spaniard(s)adjective: SpanishEthnic groups:composite of Mediterranean and Nordic typesReligions:Roman Catholic 94%, other 6%Languages:Castilian Spanish (official) 74%, Catalan 17%, Galician 7%, Basque 2%, are official regionallyLiteracy:definition: age 15 and over can read and writetotal population: 97.9%male: 98.7%female: 97.2% (2003 est.)

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